|Type of Protection||Patent||Industrial Design||Trade mark||Copyright|
|What is Protected?||Functional features of process, machine, manufactured item or composition of matter.||Ornamental designs for articles of manufacture.||Words, names, symbols, or logos.||Writings, photos, music, works of art, computer programs.|
|Criteria for Protection?||Useful, new and unobvious.||New and original.||Used to identify and distinguish goods or services.||Originality.|
|How Obtain Rights?||Registration at Patent Office.||Registration at Industrial Designs Office.||Common Law – local reputation
Registration – national protection.
|Automatic upon creation. Registration at Copyright Office recommended.|
|Term of Protection?||20 years from date of filing of application.||5 years from registration – renewable for additional 5 years||Common Law – indefinitely
Registration – renewable terms of 15 years.
|Generally life of author plus 50 years.|
|Test of Infringement?||Making, using or selling devices embodying the claimed invention?||Designs look alike to ordinary observer?||Likelihood of confusion?||Substantial portion copied?|
CAVEAT: This chart provides an over-simplified comparison. Many of the words used above are terms of legal art and the subject of judicial interpretation.
|Type of Protection||Trade Secret||Plants||Chips|
|What is Protected?||Technical secrets, customer lists||Propagating materials for a prescribed category||Chip topography/mask works|
|Criteria for Protection?||Generally not known to the public||New, stable, uniform, distinct||Original|
|How Obtain Rights?||Maintenance of secrecy||Registration at Agriculture Canada||Registration at Copyright Office|
|Term of Protection?||Indefinitely until disclosure or independent discovery that becomes public||18 years from registration||10 years from the earlier of the first commercial exploitation or date of filing of application|
|Test of Infringement?||Theft||Sell or produce protected variety||Substantial portion reproduced|
Note. “utility patent” (e.g. US) vs. “utility model” (e.g. Japan, Korea)
For assistance, please contact Neil Melliship or Brock Smith.